The term “learning style” began to appear in the educational literature in the 1970s. Since that time, researchers and educators have attempted to determine both a standardized defining construct and a functional assessment instrument. The result has been an inundation of differing models and commercial measurements yielding questionable and inconclusive empirical results.
The terms learning style, cognitive style, and learning strategy are used interchangeably and imprecisely throughout. Keefe (1979) defines learning styles as the “composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning…
I grip harder
Desperate to hold on to the remnants
But they seep through the gaps of my fingers
And linger for just a moment
Like trails of smoke
I dig in
Desperate to save what is left
Of the world I know
But the sand shifts and gives way
Until there is little left
In my sweaty hands
But the desperate memory
Desperate to back peddle
To a comfortable place
Among the familiar
But the trail is gone
The landmarks blurred
Dissolved into nothingness
I reach for the clock
In general terms, various forms of psychological tests have been employed for the purpose of measuring “differences between individuals or between the reactions of the same individual under different circumstances” (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997, p. 2). More specifically, the measurement of ability represents one of the most widespread applications of psychology and psychometrics in everyday life. These assessments of ability range from instruments that test general mental ability — referred to as intelligence tests — to those that tap specific abilities — referred to as aptitude and special aptitude tests.
General intelligence testing represents both one of the…
Effective cross-cultural marketing requires an understanding, sensitivity and respect for alternative cultures, customs and beliefs. Failure to take these differences into consideration will not only render many marketing efforts ineffective or even counter-productive, but may also result in offending and alienating whole groups of people.
Ethics with regard to the business environment refers to rules of conduct that guide actions in the marketplace. These notions about right and wrong differ among individuals, organizations, and cultures. For example, some businesses believe it is acceptable to engage in any type of persuasive techniques even if it means giving the prospective customer false…
Like individuals in other contexts, students seek to understand the reasons for their failures. Weiner’s (1980) dimensions of attributions argued that the designation of responsibility is an important aspect of explanations, indicating a belief in whether or not the individual is in control of the cause of failure. Weiner (1994) further outlined the standard attribution sequence and its effect upon motivation and performance when an individual attributed failure to an uncontrollable lack of ability, as follows:
Failure → Lack of Ability → Uncontrollable → Not Responsible → Shame and Embarrassment → Decline in Performance
In contrast, he depicted the sequence…
Perspectives such as behaviorism and social cognitive theory show us how the consequence (reinforcement or punishment) of a particular behavior affects the extent to which the behavior is likely to appear again. Attribution theory has cast a new light on this notion, maintaining that the consequences of behavior will affect each person’s learning and future behavior differently, depending on how the individual interprets those consequences. Thus, motivation theorists consider this aspect of attribution to be key in the development of learned behavior.
In the 18th century, Hume (1739) argued that assuming there are causes for everything that happens is an…
Writer and university professor researching media psych, generational studies, human and animal rights, and the intersection of art and psychology