In early cognitive psychology studies (Tolman, 1948), the term cognitive map was originally used to describe the process by which rats learned the sequence of a maze. As such, it represented the process by which they acquired and stored knowledge about the correct route by appearing to develop an internal map-like representation of the environment. Subsequently, this characterization was applied to human thought processes as well.
In current psychological literature, cognitive maps refer to one’s internal mental representations that simulate the physical environment, particularly aspects of relative location and spatial relationships. These representations are based upon three types of orienting…
Somatoform Disorders, Factitious Disorders and Malingering are among the most difficult disorders for clinical psychologists to diagnose and differentiate.
Somatoform Disorders are “problems that appear to be physical, or medical, but are actually due to psychosocial factors” and as such represent “psychological disorders masquerading as physical problems” (Comer, 2004, p. 200). This class of disorders does not represent a conscious or purposeful attempt by the patient to intentionally deceive medical and/or mental health practitioners, but instead, manifests as persistent or recurrent symptoms or impairments which the patients themselves believe to be physical in nature and consider beyond their…
Piaget’s comprehensive theory of infant cognitive development emphasizes the complexity of processes and stages involved as children begin to conceptualize about and interact with their environment. He contributed to the understanding of cognitive development by establishing the link between a child’s sensory input and subsequent motor responses, suggesting the stepwise progression of conceptual development (Santrock, 2002). His theory was particularly revolutionary because it encompassed a generalized and unifying theory of universal cognitive development in young children. Unlike many other broad and comprehensive psychological theories, Piaget’s offers distinct, concrete concepts that can be easily tested and measured in a variety of…
Acknowledging the relevance of Piaget’s cognitive perspective on development, Kohlberg proposed a theory of progressive moral development based upon cognitive aspects of moral reasoning. He proposed that children progress through stages of moral maturation based on their cognitive conceptualizations of right and wrong. He measured these constructs using situational examples of moral dilemmas to assess the underlying thought processes used in the determination of these judgments.
The theory gives precedence to the reasoning utilized to arrive at moral conclusions rather than evaluating the moral content of the choice. Based on his research, Kohlberg posited three levels and six stages of…
Once family dinners
Replaced by microwave meals
On the fly
Fend for yourself
Retreat to your own corner
Sunday morning sharing The NY Times
Working the crossword together
Replaced by solemn brooding
Sleeping off the hangover
Of another desperate night
The inside joke
Now falls on deaf ears
What was even so funny
Saturday afternoon drives in the country
Enjoying the ride
Replaced by his golf game
Mostly played out in the clubhouse
And her book club
With book abandoned
For resentful talk of his golf game
And too much wine
Summers at the cottage
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is credited with constructing the first comprehensive stage theory of cognitive development in which mental processing structures become increasingly abstract and sophisticated. He posited that universally children formulate their conclusions about the world by actively engaging in manipulation of objects in their environment and from this interaction, learn basic principles in a step-wise manner. Piaget posited four cumulative age-related stages of qualitative cognitive change characterized by very distinct ways of thinking. …
Projective tests were the predominant form of personality test used by clinical psychologists prior to 1950. Louttit and Browne (1947) examined the frequency of test usage and found that human figure drawings, the TAT, and the Rorschach were the most commonly used personality tests, following only individually administered IQ tests. Similarly, Sundberg (1954) reviewed the 1936 to 1951 editions of the Mental Measurements Yearbook and observed that the Rorschach ranked either first or second among all psychological tests in the frequency with which it was cited in the professional literature.
The status of projective tests was quite high at the…
While the Rorschach Inkblot Test, the Thematic Apperception Test and the Human Figures Drawing Test are among the most well recognized and clinically utilized projective assessment measures, various other lesser-known projective tests exist.
Below is a list of various projective personality assessment measures (Lilienfeld, 2000).
· Freud’s “fundamental rule” of psychoanalysis. Clients say whatever comes to mind, without making a conscious effort to inhibit their speech. Unconscious troubling material is interpreted from slips of the tongue, blocking, and other verbal expressions.
Word Association Test
· Items consist of single words read aloud by the examiner and to which…