The strengthening of behavior which results from reinforcement is appropriately called ‘conditioning’. In operant conditioning we ‘strengthen’ an operant in the sense of making a response more probable or, in actual fact, more frequent. — B. F. Skinner

Reinforcement refers to “the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that follows” (Santrok, 2003, p. 280). In other words, a reinforcer is anything that strengthens the behavior that leads to it. Reinforcement can be further subdivided into categories…

In the garden of life, the late bloomers are especially beautiful. — Susan Gale

When I was just a little girl, I became enamored with the “I Dream of Jeannie” show. I watched it faithfully every week and “played” genie in between the episodes. …

Why Evil Exists

“The line between good and evil lies at the center of every human heart. It is not an abstraction out there. It’s a decision you have to make every day inside.” — Alexandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian poet imprisoned under Stalin

“You can’t be a sweet cucumber in a vinegar barrel.” …

America was not built on fear. America was built on courage, on imagination and an unbeatable determination to do the job at hand. — Harry S. Truman

“Grandma”, I said excitedly, “look at the pretty purple pin I found!”

It was a rainy afternoon and I was rifling through the closet in search of something interesting when I found this unique item. …

Harnessing Panic in Your Favor

It probably won’t happen to you. Statistics show that the odds are in your favor — really, really in your favor.

Harvard University researcher, David Ropeik (2006), noted ”The annual risk of being killed in a plane crash for the average American is about 1 in 11 million.”

Arnold Barnett…

Because personality disorders consist of deeply ingrained attitudes and behavior patterns that consolidate during development and endure through adulthood, they are neither easily nor quickly eradicated. Generally, personality disorder patients require a longer course of treatment than other psychiatric patients. Their dysfunctional beliefs about themselves and others interfere with the…

Donna L Roberts, PhD (Psych Pstuff)

Writer and university professor researching media psych, generational studies, human and animal rights, and the intersection of art and psychology

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