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Test Reliability

Reliability, in the context of psychometric instruments, refers to the degree to which a test consistently measures the subject matter it is designed to measure. …


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Test Validity

Because psychometric tests are used to make important inferences about people and decisions about a subsequent course of action, the consistency and accuracy of the measurement instrument is of utmost concern. One particularly relevant aspect of the measure, known as validity, refers to the extent to which the…


Arguments based on brain development

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Perhaps one of the most contentious debates in childhood education is the efficacy and relevance of early enrichment programs for preschool children. Concerned parties on both sides of the issue have strong feelings about their positions and propose persuasive arguments quoting ardent research in support thereof. Sifting through the myriad…


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There are aspects of our humanness that are so integral in defining who we are to ourselves and in relation to others, that they serve as permanent, albeit unconscious, filters through which we experience the world and judge others. Culture, race and ethnicity are filters of this nature, and their…


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In early cognitive psychology studies (Tolman, 1948), the term cognitive map was originally used to describe the process by which rats learned the sequence of a maze. As such, it represented the process by which they acquired and stored knowledge about the correct route by appearing to develop an internal…


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Somatoform Disorders, Factitious Disorders and Malingering are among the most difficult disorders for clinical psychologists to diagnose and differentiate.

Somatoform Disorders

Somatoform Disorders are “problems that appear to be physical, or medical, but are actually due to psychosocial factors” and as such represent “psychological disorders masquerading as physical problems” (Comer…


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Piaget’s comprehensive theory of infant cognitive development emphasizes the complexity of processes and stages involved as children begin to conceptualize about and interact with their environment. He contributed to the understanding of cognitive development by establishing the link between a child’s sensory input and subsequent motor responses, suggesting the stepwise…


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Acknowledging the relevance of Piaget’s cognitive perspective on development, Kohlberg proposed a theory of progressive moral development based upon cognitive aspects of moral reasoning. He proposed that children progress through stages of moral maturation based on their cognitive conceptualizations of right and wrong. …

Donna L Roberts, PhD (Psych Pstuff)

Writer and university professor researching media psych, generational studies, human and animal rights, and the intersection of art and psychology

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